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Now I’d like to teach you how to fish, as it were, by taking a more general look. You just need to know the basic building blocks—namely, the generic elements that nearly all references in APA style contain—and then you can adapt them to your particular needs. To be less cryptic and more lengthy, the quartet of queries can be expanded thus: Who created this reference? The title entry implicitly tells your reader, “Authorship was checked for but despite the best efforts of the citer, no such information was either given or obtainable.” When was this reference created? (Information about that container will be part of the fourth generic-reference element, discussed further on.) For instance, as regards a journal article, all of the “what” element is the title of the article, not the name of the journal in which that article appears.The sixth edition of the lays the requirements out pretty bluntly. In most cases, a year will suffice to answer this question. (As said above, that journal name will be used later on.) So, too, with a chapter in an edited book: The “what” is the title of the chapter only.
The is intended to be both explanatory and fairly comprehensive.
Nonetheless, there is no way on earth it could set out examples for every possible type of reference.
It ranges from the basic journal name, volume, and page span for journal articles to the online versions where that information is supplemented with a DOI or URL.
A book chapter’s “where” can be quite involved, what with listing editor name(s), the book’s overall title, a page span, and publisher location and name.
References to books available online may dispense with the publisher information, replacing it with a DOI or URL.
And books and journals are just the tip of the reference iceberg.
Title of doctoral dissertation or master's thesis (Doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis, Name of University, City, Country).
Retrieved from Proquest Dissertations and Theses database.
APA Style is widely used by scholarly publishers in behavioural and social sciences.
APA Style also addresses general editorial issues and the preparation of manuscripts for publication.