Appearance Essay Good Nature Practical Reason

– Nonetheless, Kant believed in God, though he was critical of church practice.– Kant was adamant that God could not be proved in any positive way.– Causality therefore applies to the phenomenal world, but not to the noumenal world.

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Although religion can never properly be known, in a strict sense. – “In this manner, the moral laws lead through the conception of the summum bonum as the object and final end of pure practical reason to religion, that is, to the recognition of all duties as divine commands, not as sanctions, that is to say, arbitrary ordinances of a foreign and contingent in themselves, but as essential laws of every free will in itself, which, nevertheless, must be regarded as commands of the Supreme Being, because it is only from a morally perfect (holy and good) and at the same time all-powerful will, and consequently only through harmony with this will, that we can hope to attain the summum bonum which the moral law makes it our duty to take as the object of our endeavours.” (2nd C.– The ultimate goal of reason, the highest good, therefore is a combination of virtue and happiness – this Kant calls the summum bonum (Latin for ‘highest good’).– But be careful: the summum bonum is not the reason for being moral – it is rather merely the later goal as a result of being moral.Ontology – Kant brought together two previously opposed strands of philosophy: Empiricism and Rationalism.– He argued in the 1 – Time & space are thus called ‘pure concepts of the understanding’ and therefore do not really exist (in the noumenal world).So, in some cases, one is being moral even when the consequences are knowingly bad. For Kant, morality is doing one’s duty, – But one’s duty is not dictated by a set of prescribed rules, but is rather dictated by one’s own reason. “I would like to earn money for nothing.”) – so a good will must use objective principles.– In GMM, Kant argues that the reason we have reason is not to seek pleasure (as an instinct would suffice for this), but rather therefore to have a good will. (e.g “I would like everyone to be happy.”) – Kant called the most general moral objective principle, the Categorical Imperative, which reads: – Now, as Kant’s morals are based on intentions (objective principles), a problem arises: If everything in the universe is caused by something else, then even the actions I perform are merely determined by prior causes.The harmony itself is not only a logical expectation, but a necessary reward for being moral.– As the summum bonum is a duty as well as a reward, there must be a God who ensures that this harmony (morality & happiness) is attained.Not by reason, nor ‘revelation’ (he wrote a critique of the Christian mystic, Swedenborg).However, he did argue – in the 2 – To fully understand Kant’s rather complex argument, one must really understand his whole philosophy, especially his ontology (theory of existence), epistemology (theory of knowledge – which is linked to his ontology), and his ethical theory.

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