(And parents traditionally place greater demands on grown daughters than on sons.) In addition, working mothers are often expected to assume most of the responsibility in family emergencies, such as the illness of a child, which periodically disrupt their already overloaded schedules.Tags: Financial Planner Business PlanIntroductory Paragraph In An EssayWriting Dissertation IntroductionWho Owns The Media EssayNorthwestern Essay Questions 2013Creative Writing Tutor JobsTransportation Research Paper Topics
In addition, many still feel torn between the conflicting demands of family and career and guilt for not being able to spend more time with their children.
Increasing numbers of working mothers also feel responsible for helping their own aging parents as they develop health problems and become less able to handle their own affairs.
Their attitudes toward their jobs and their decisions about child care are shaped by a range of social and economic factors: Working mothers in many fields experience conflicts between motherhood and professional advancement.
Many report that once they have children their professional aspirations are not taken as seriously by colleagues or superiors.
Some women feel too threatened by the repercussions of time off the job to even take a maternity leave; others report problems on reentering the workforce after such a leave.
Women in highly competitive professions are especially reluctant to lighten their work loads or schedules for fear that such measures will signal a lower level of commitment or ability than that of their peers, and they will be automatically assigned to the infamous "Mommy track." Many women—both with and without children—in traditionally male professions still earn lower salaries and carry greater workloads than those of male colleagues with comparable credentials and work experience because of the perception that they are not the breadwinners in their families.In particular, if they quit working for a time to stay home with their children, the gap in their resumes is regarded with suspicion.One study found that the earnings of women with MBAs who took even nine months off after their children were born were still 17 percent lower 10 years later than those of employees with similar qualifications but no comparable gap in their employment record.In addition, they often worked at tasks traditionally done by the opposite sex: boys cooked, cleaned, and babysat; girls helped with home repairs and yard work.A supplementary benefit of this development is that the daughters of single mothers have a greater than average likelihood of entering traditionally male professions offering higher pay and better opportunities for advancement. Department of Commerce's Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) reported in 1997 that one married father in four provided care for at least one child under the age of 15 while the child's mother was working.The number of single mothers with full-time year-round jobs increased from 39 percent in 1996 to 49 percent in 2002.A growing percentage of married women living with their husbands work as well: 40 percent worked full time in 1992, compared with 16 percent in 1970.According to one study, the number of companies offering some type of employment flexibility to their workers rose from 51 percent in 1990 to 73 percent in 1995.Fifty-five percent offered flex-time, while 51 percent offered part-time work.In 2004, Working Mother magazine reported that 97 percent of the companies on their list of the 100 best companies for mothers in the workforce offered compressed workweeks or job sharing opportunities.Mothers who work part-time gain more flexibility and more time with their children, as well as time to devote to their own needs.