Three-quarters of the Florida prison population has at least one tattoo; the median inmate has three.
The data also confirm how generational criminal tattoos are: 85% of prisoners under 35 have tattoos, compared with 43% for prisoners aged 55 and over.
The related existing economic literature analysing general welfare programmes usually ignores the crucial endogeneity involved in the relationship between crime rates and social welfare policies through poverty, since poorer regions are focused in the distribution of resources.
I use the existing temporal heterogeneity in the implementation of the programme across the states to identify the causal impact of CCT programmes on poverty and criminality.
The magnitude of the observed asymmetries supports the hypothesis of hysteresis in crime, and suggests that no theoretical or empirical analysis would be complete without careful consideration of that important feature in the relationships between crime, police and legal income.
These results corroborate the argument that policy makers should be more inclined to set pre-emptive policies rather than mitigating measures.The absolute value of the average impact of positive variations in those variables on property and violent crime rates are statistically smaller than the absolute value of the average effect of negative variations.These effects are robust under several specifications.More specifically, I investigate whether positive variations on variables associated to those factors, respectively police officers and average level of income, are statistically different from negative variations.Using US crime data at the state level between 19, I find that police force size and real average income of unskilled workers have asymmetric effects on most types of crimes.Although, with more research there have been links between environmental factors, specifically heavy metals such as lead, cadmium and mercury, and life outcome.Heavy metals have been directly associated with causing neurotoxicity, specifically in young children.Domestic violence and victimization in poor inner-city areas and closed institutions are significantly under-represented crimes in official statistics despite being a huge problem.White-collar crimes are the most neglected crimes of all, massively under-represented in both official statistics and the media despite being the most damaging to society.States that reached the level of cash transfer expenditures proposed by the guidelines of the programme more promptly had a more significant reduction in poverty rates.Similar but less robust results are found for crime rates as robbery, theft and kidnapping, while no significant effects were found for homicide and murder, indicating a weak or non-existent relationship between conditional cash transfers and crime.