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Values are implanted early in a person’s life and once they are fixed, serve as a guide in choosing behaviour and in forming attitudes. Values change through day-to-day behaviour, regulated by norms.Values are developed and reinforced and do not develop spontaneously.
A person who violates norms beyond a certain limit is labelled as ‘abnormal’. Individual beliefs play very important role in the behaviour of a person, therefore, caseworker should try to tackle and manage these beliefs.
Beliefs are ideas about the nature of social world, supernatural reality, a person or an object which one believes to be true and acts accordingly. The therapeutic concepts related to beliefs have been very well developed by Albert Ellis.
For, to hold that anything is awful, terrible, or horrible, rather than unfortunate, unpleasant, or painful, is to hold: (1) It is all bad and can have no good in it; (2) It is more than bad or disadvantageous; (3) Because it is unpleasant, it should not and muse not exist; (4) One cannot stand its existence; (5) One has to be utterly miserable about it; and (6) One is a worthless person if he cannot immediately change himself, others, and the universe so that this awful thing no longer exists.
All these hypotheses are definitional and cannot be proved or disproved.
People, who feel anxious, depressed or hostile do not merely wish to prefer something but also command, dictate, insist that they achieve this thing.
Typically, they demand that they be outstandingly achieving and/or greatly approved by others, and they thereby make themselves disturbed when they fail to achieve these demands.Just about every time one feels disturbed or upset, instead of merely displeased, frustrated or disappointed, one is stoutly convincing oneself that something is awful rather than inconvenient or disadvantageous.One frequently believes: (1) “It is awful that I am imperfect and am disapproved” (2) “It is terrible that you are treating me less than ideally” (3) “Or, it is horrible that the world is so onerous and ungratifying.” When one awfulises or catastrophises about reality, he is setting up an unverifiable, magical, unempirical hypothesis.They essentially represent demons which one invents and is governed by.And, once one devoutly believes in them, these will create anxiety, guilt feelings of worthlessness, depression, and hostility.If they practise living rigorously in empirical reality, strongly desiring and actively working to improve that reality but not grandiosely dictating that it be otherwise than it indoubtably is, they can reach a point where they rarely upset themselves and therefore rarely have to counteract their awfulising.Emotional disorder according to Ellis tends to stem from some form of two simple words: “Its awful”, or “How horrible”, or “It’s terrible”.If one rigidly holds these ideas about anything, he will be basically upsettable and often disturbed.If one wants to eliminate one’s disturbance, he can substitute two other simple words: “Tough luck”, “Too bad”, or “How unfortunate”. Values comprise of ideas which are preferred, described in other words, what is good, right, wise or beneficial.Values are generally expressed in terms of ‘should’.