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Homework can cause tension and conflict in the home as well as at school, and can reduce students' family and leisure time.In the Cheung & Leung-Ngai (1992) survey, failure to complete homework and low grades where homework was a contributing factor was correlated with greater conflict; some students have reported teachers and parents frequently criticizing their work.Epstein (1988) found a near-zero correlation between the amount of homework and parents' reports on how well their elementary school students behaved.
Homework also provides an opportunity for parents to participate in their children's education.
Homework is designed to reinforce what students have already learned.
Students who are assigned homework in middle and high school score somewhat better on standardized tests, but the students who have 60 to 90 minutes of homework a day in middle school or more than two hours in high school score worse.
Proponents claim that assigning homework to young children helps them learn good study habits.
With few students interested in higher education, and due to the necessity to complete daily chores, homework was discouraged not only by parents, but also by school districts.
In 1901, the California legislature passed an act that effectively abolished homework for those who attended kindergarten through the eighth grade.If your child typically keeps up in class but struggles with homework assignments or new concepts, turn to Sylvan for homework help.Our homework tutors will help your child lower frustration, boost comprehension and learn how to apply new skills.But, in the 1950s, with increasing pressure on the United States to stay ahead in the Cold War, homework made a resurgence, and children were encouraged to keep up with their Russian counterparts.By the end of the Cold War in the early 1990s, the consensus in American education was overwhelmingly in favor of issuing homework to students of all grade levels.Homework has been identified in numerous studies and articles as a dominant or significant source of stress and anxiety for students.Cheung & Leung-Ngai (1992) surveyed 1,983 students in Hong Kong, and found that homework led not only to added stress and anxiety, but also physical symptoms, such as headaches and stomachaches.The authors of Sallee & Rigler (2008), both high school English teachers, reported that their homework disrupted their students' extracurricular activities and responsibilities. (2009) found that parents were less likely to report homework as a distraction from their children's activities and responsibilities.Galloway, Conner & Pope (2013) recommended further empirical study relating to this aspect due to the difference between student and parent observations.Essentially, they advocate for doing potentially unnecessary homework from approximately age five to ten as a way of practicing for doing necessary homework from age 10 to 15.No research has ever been conducted to determine whether this claim has any merit.