Luther wrote his radical “95 Theses” to express his growing concern with the corruption within the Church.
Luther wrote his radical “95 Theses” to express his growing concern with the corruption within the Church.Tags: Teacher Respect EssayAverage Ap Us History Essay ScorePhd Thesis In Applied StatisticsSoftware For Creative WritingWhy America EssayFinancial Part Of A Business Plan
Although Luther did not know the details of the agreement the Pope and Archbishop Albrecht had made with the Fuggers, he was familiar with the papal bull that had announced the jubilee indulgence, and with Archbishop Albrecht’s official instructions to the indulgence salesmen.
Tetzel was authorized to promise that this indulgence would grant plenary remission of temporal sin and its penalties in Purgatory upon absolution by any priest the purchaser chose.
Luther was so despised by the church that a death warrant was issued, giving anyone permission to kill him. He who says that the cross with the Pope's arms, solemnly set on high, has as much power as the Cross of Christ, blasphemes God. Those bishops, curates, and theologists, who allow such speeches to be uttered among the people, will have one day to answer for it. Such impudent sermons concerning indulgences make it difficult even for learned men to protect the Pope's honor and dignity against the calumnies, or at all events against the searching questions, of the laymen. As for instance: - Why does not the Pope deliver all souls at the same time out of Purgatory for the sake of most holy love and on account of the bitterest distress of those souls - this being the most imperative of all motives, - while he saves an infinite number of souls for the sake of that most miserable thing money, to be spent on St. Peter's Minster with his own money - since his riches are now more ample than those of Crassus, - rather than with the money of poor Christians? Again: -Why does the Pope remit or give to those who, through perfect penitence, have already a right to plenary remission and pardon? Again: - What greater good could the Church receive, than if the Pope presented this remission and pardon a hundred times a day to every believer, instead of but once, as he does now? If the Pope seeks by his pardon the salvation of souls, rather than money, why does he annul letters of indulgence granted long ago, and declare them out of force, though they are still in force? To repress these very telling questions of the laymen by force, and not to solve them by telling the truth, is to expose the Church and the Pope to the enemy's ridicule and to make Christian people unhappy. Therefore, if pardons were preached according to the Pope's intention and opinion, all these objections would be easily answered, nay, they never had occurred. Away then with all those prophets who say to the community of Christ, "Peace, peace", and there is no peace. But blessed be all those prophets who say to the community of Christ, "The cross, the cross," and there is no cross. Christians should be exhorted to endeavor to follow Christ their Head through Cross, Death, and Hell, 95.
However, Luther was given protection by Prince Frederick of Saxony, a staunch defender of Luther. Peter's Minster: - this being the very slightest of motives? Or again: - Why do masses for the dead continue, and why does not the Pope return or permit to be withdrawn the funds which were established for the sake of the dead, since it is now wrong to pray for those who are already saved? Again: - What is this new holiness of God and the Pope that, for money's sake, they permit the wicked and the enemy of God to save a pious soul, faithful to God, and yet will not save that pious and beloved soul without payment, out of love, and on account of its great distress? Again: - Why is it that the canons of penance, long abrogated and dead in themselves, because they are not used, are yet still paid for with money through the granting of pardons, as if they were still in force and alive? And thus hope with confidence to enter Heaven through many miseries, rather than in false security.
The Pope had the power to limit or do away with penances imposed by the clergy, but he did not have the power to bring about the interior contrition that leads to salvation. Indulgences are positively harmful, according to the Theses, since they induce a false assurance of peace, and cause the recipients to neglect true repentance.
Luther published his “95 Theses” fully realizing that he faced excommunication and even death for protesting the traditions and beliefs of the Catholic Church. Luther’s “95 Theses” became highly sought after by the populace and were soon translated into German for the common people to read.
Below is the complete text of the 95 Theses of Martin Luther: Out of love for the truth and from desire to elucidate it, the Reverend Father Martin Luther, Master of Arts and Sacred Theology, and ordinary lecturer therein at Wittenberg, intends to defend the following statements and to dispute on them in that place. Our Lord and Master Jesus Christ, in saying, "Repent ye, etc.," intended that the whole life of his believers on earth should be a constant penance. And the word "penance" neither can, nor may, be understood as referring to the Sacrament of Penance, that is, to confession and atonement as exercised under the priest's ministry. Nevertheless He does not think of inward penance only: rather is inward penance worthless unless it produces various outward mortifications of the flesh. Therefore mortification continues as long as hatred of oneself continues, that is to say, true inward penance lasts until entrance into the Kingdom of Heaven. The Pope will not, and cannot, remit other punishments than those which he has imposed by his own decree or according to the canons. The Pope can forgive sins only in the sense, that he declares and confirms what may be forgiven of God; or that he doth it in those cases which he hath reserved to himself; be this contemned, the sin remains unremitted. God forgives none his sin without at the same time casting him penitent and humbled before the priest His vicar. The canons concerning penance are imposed only on the living; they ought not by any means, following the same canons, to be imposed on the dying. Therefore, the Holy Spirit, acting in the Pope, does well for us, when the latter in his decrees entirely removes the article of death and extreme necessity. Those priests act unreasonably and ill who reserve for Purgatory the penance imposed on the dying. This abuse of changing canonical penalty into the penalty of Purgatory seems to have arisen when the bishops were asleep. In times of yore, canonical penalties were imposed, not after, but before, absolution, as tests of true repentance and affliction. The dying pay all penalties by their death, are already dead to the canons, and rightly have exemption from them. Imperfect spiritual health or love in the dying person necessarily brings with it great fear; and the less this love is, the greater the fear it brings. This fear and horror - to say nothing of other things - are sufficient in themselves to produce the punishment of Purgatory, because they approximate to the horror of despair. Hell, Purgatory, and Heaven seem to differ as perfect despair, imperfect despair, and security of salvation differ. It seems as must in Purgatory love in the souls increase, as fear diminishes in them. It does not seem to be proved either by arguments or by the Holy Writ that they are outside the state of merit and demerit, or increase of love. This, too, seems not to be proved, that they are all sure and confident of their salvation, though we may be quite sure of it. Therefore the Pope, in speaking of the perfect remission of all punishments, does not mean that all penalties in general be forgiven, but only those imposed by himself. Therefore, those preachers of indulgences err who say that, by the Pope's indulgence, a man may be exempt from all punishments, and be saved. Yea, the Pope remits the souls in Purgatory no penalty which they, according to the canons, would have had to pay in this life. If to anybody complete remission of all penalties may be granted, it is certain that it is granted only to those most approaching perfection, that is, to very few. Therefore the multitude is misled by the boastful promise of the paid penalty, whereby no manner of distinction is made. The same power that the Pope has over Purgatory, such has also every bishop in his diocese, and every curate in his parish. The Pope acts most rightly in granting remission to souls, not by the power of the keys - which in Purgatory he does not possess - but by way of intercession. They preach vanity who say that the soul flies out of Purgatory as soon as the money thrown into the chest rattles. What is sure, is, that as soon as the penny rattles in the chest, gain and avarice are on the way of increase; but the intercession of the church depends only on the will of God Himself. And who knows, too, whether all those souls in Purgatory wish to be redeemed, as it is said to have happened with St. Peter's be sold thereto - to those from whom the preachers of indulgences do most extort money. It is a vain and false thing to hope to be saved through indulgences, though the commissary - nay, the Pope himself - was to pledge his own soul therefore. Those who, on account of a sermon concerning indulgences in one church, condemn the word of God to silence in the others, are enemies of Christ and of the Pope. Wrong is done to the word of God if one in the same sermon spends as much or more time on indulgences as on the word of the Gospel. The opinion of the Pope cannot be otherwise than this:- If an indulgence - which is the lowest thing - be celebrated with one bell, one procession and ceremonies, then the Gospel - which is the highest thing - must be celebrated with a hundred bells, a hundred processions, and a hundred ceremonies. The treasures of the Church, whence the Pope grants his dispensation are neither sufficiently named nor known among the community of Christ. It is manifest that they are not temporal treasures, for the latter are not lightly spent, but rather gathered by many of the preachers. Nor are they the merits of Christ and of the saints, for these, without the Pope's aid, work always grace to the inner man, cross, death, and hell to the other man.
Therefore he asks that those who cannot be present and dispute with him orally shall do so in their absence by letter.
The printing press then enabled the wide distribution of the Theses, provoking in the people more disenchantment with the ways of the Catholic Church.
In 1521, Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther from the Catholic Church and declared him a heretic.