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This is why most experiments recruit volunteer subjects.You may have seen ads for these on a university campus or in a newspaper.
An independent variable doesn't change based on the other variables.
The second factor - the one being influenced by changes - is called a dependent variable.
Therefore the study's results are generalizable to the population at large.
Random assignment occurs only in experimental settings where subjects are being assigned to various treatments.
This way, if we do find a difference in running speed between the two groups, we will be able to attribute it to the treatment, the energy gel, and can be assured that the difference isn't due to pro status, since both pro and amateur athletes were equally represented in the treatment and control groups.
If subjects are selected randomly from the population, then each subject in the population is equally likely to be selected and the resulting sample is likely representative of the population.Such human experiments that rely on volunteers employ random assignment but not random sampling.These studies can be used to make causal conclusions, but the conclusions only apply to the sample and the results cannot be generalized.This kind of variable changes based on the independent variable.Experiments are the best way to determine cause and effect relationships between these variables.We call such variables con-founders or confounding variables.In this setting, if we observe any difference between the average reading speeds of the two groups, we can actually attribute it to the actual treatment, the font type, and know that it its likely not due to the control confounding variable.Randomly assigning subjects helps to eliminate confounding variables, or variables other than the independent variable that could cause a change in the dependent variable.Suppose one day while studying for a test, you notice that you seem more focused and productive while you are listening to music.Taking a close look at our sample, we usually see that the subjects exhibits slightly different characteristics from one another.Through a random assignment, we ensured that these characteristics are represented equally in the treatment and control groups.